Classification of the Theory
As a whole, rational theories represent a return to some of the concerns of the old Classical School. They assume people have the capacity to make their own decisions, yet most of the theories also restrict those decisions by including the effects of the environment or social structure. Therefore, rational theories are primarily characterized by “soft free will” and are classical. They are also consensus-oriented because they assume an individual who decides to commit a crime chooses to behave in opposition to the established order of society. In addition, the approach tends to be more process-oriented and microtheoretical, with an emphasis on the individual making the decision. This is not always the case, however. Some versions are more concerned with the structural and environmental considerations that influence choices; thus, these are more macrotheoretical in character. In short, there are a number of variations within the general perspective of rational theory. As opposed to most earlier theories, however, the most distinctive feature of rational theory is the free-will, individualistic assumption.
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