Puberty, breeding seasons and reproductive technologies in domestic animals Custom Paper

Each answer should be a logical reasoned argument with supporting information in the form of cited references, and tables and figures where appropriate.
Answer to each question should utilize three to four sources from peer-reviewed scientific journals or recent textbooks.
Examples and data are valuable to support your answer but do not replace the explanation of the underlying physiological mechanism.
No introduction or conclusion is needed.
1) In what respects are the hormonal mechanisms controlling puberty in young female animals (cattle, ewe, horse etc. ) similar to those controlling seasonal breeding in mature females?
2) The observation that females of prolific breeds tend to reach puberty at a lower proportion of mature weight than females of less prolific breeds provides evidence that the onset of puberty is under genetic control. How might this genetic control act on the onset of puberty in terms of its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis?
3) Administration of exogenous melatonin is sometimes used to induce breeding in ewes and does during their non-breeding season. Explain the mechanisms and show how the melatonin is likely to exert this effect.
4) What are the likely benefits of semen sexing or embryo sexing? Discuss and compare the techniques. Which industry in New Zealand is most likely to utilise sexed semen and why?
5) Describe two methods of cloning embryos and the potential advantages of these techniques to the animal industries. Are there any disadvantages?

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