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Toulmin Model of Argument

The twentieth-century British philosopher Stephen Toulmin noticed that good, realistic arguments typically will consist of six parts. He used these terms to describe the items. Data: The facts or evidence used to prove the argument Claim: The statement being argued (a thesis) Warrants: The general, hypothetical (and often implicit) logical statements that serve as bridges between the claim and the data. Qualifiers: Statements that limit the strength of the argument or statements that propose the conditions under which the argument is true. Rebuttals: Counter-arguments or statements indicating circumstances when the general argument does not hold true. Backing: Statements that serve to support the warrants (i.e., arguments that dont necessarily prove the main point being argued, but which do prove the warrants are true.) Toulmins diagram of arguments typically looks something like this example: An argument written in this manner unfolds to reveal both the strengths

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